Current sensors and voltage sensors in microelectronics
Even though we are dealing with comparatively low currents and current voltages in microelectronics, the monitoring of the applied direct or alternating current within an electronic circuit is nevertheless very important. The measured values recorded by a current or voltage sensor are used, among other things, to determine the current consumption and thus indirectly also for the emergency shutdown of electronic equipment in the event of a system overload.
ACS712 current sensors for microcontrollers
Current sensors measure the change in the magnetic flux density of a magnetic field triggered by electric currents. The best known representatives of the sensors within microelectronics are the current sensors of the type "ACS712". The low-cost and compact current sensors are suitable for currents up to 30A. The sensors with ACS712 chip output the detected signal value with a voltage between 0 to 5 volts and are therefore ideal for use with an Arduino microcontroller.
Voltage sensors - compatible with Arduino microelectronics
Voltage sensors work by the principle of voltage division. Using a mathematical formula, the potential differences within the sensor are read and passed on for processing in the form of an electronic signal.
Voltage sensors are always used when a larger voltage is to be read out than the respective microcontroller could detect. For the Funduino UNO this would be 5V.